Four essays on philosophy

four essays on philosophy

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They are: Metta /Maitri: loving-kindness towards all; the hope that a person will be well; loving kindness is the wish that all sentient beings, without any exception, be happy. 27 Karuṇā : compassion; the hope that a person's sufferings will diminish; compassion is the wish for all sentient beings to be free from suffering. 27 Mudita : altruistic joy in the accomplishments of a person, oneself or other; sympathetic joy is the wholesome attitude of rejoicing in the happiness and virtues of all sentient beings. 27 Upekkha/ Upeksha : equanimity, or learning to accept both loss and gain, praise and blame, success and failure with detachment, equally, for oneself and for others. Equanimity means not to distinguish between friend, enemy or stranger, but to regard every sentient being as equal. It is a clear-minded tranquil state of mind - not being overpowered by delusions, mental dullness or agitation. 28 There are also the paramitas perfections which are the culmination of having acquired certain virtues. In Theravada buddhism 's canonical Buddhavamsa 29 there are ten Perfections ( dasa pāramiyo ).

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Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added by ancient Hindu scholars, some replaced, others merged. For example, manusamhita initially listed business ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic life: Dhriti (courage kshama ( forgiveness dama (temperance asteya saucha (inner purity indriyani-graha (control of resume senses dhi (reflective prudence vidya (wisdom satyam (truthfulness akrodha (freedom from anger). 21 In later verses, this list was reduced to five virtues by the same scholar, by merging and creating a more broader concept. The shorter list of virtues became: Ahimsa ( Non-violence dama ( self restraint asteya saucha (inner purity satyam (truthfulness). 22 23 The Bhagavad Gita - considered one of the epitomes of historic Hindu discussion of virtues and an allegorical debate on what is right and what is wrong - argues some virtues are not necessarily always absolute, but sometimes relational; for example, it explains. Buddhism edit main article: Buddhist ethics Buddhist practice as outlined in the noble eightfold Path can be regarded as a progressive list of virtues. Citation needed right view - realizing the four Noble Truths (samyag-vyāyāma, sammā-vāyāma). Right Mindfulness - mental ability to see things for what they are with clear consciousness (samyak-smṛti, sammā-sati). Right Concentration - wholesome one-pointedness of mind (samyak-samādhi, sammā-samādhi). Buddhism's four brahmavihara divine States can be more properly regarded as virtues in the european sense.

Then he said: Ask your heart regarding. Piety/virtue is that which contents the soul and comforts the heart, and sin is that which causes doubts and perturbs the heart, even if people pronounce it lawful and give you verdicts on such matters again and again. — Ahmad and Ad-Darmi for Muslims fulfilling the human rights are valued as an important building block of Islam, According to muslim beliefs Allah will forgive individual sins but the bad treatment of humans and injustice with others will only be pardoned by the humans and. Hinduism edit main article: Hindu ethics Virtue is a much debated 14 and an evolving concept in ancient scriptures of Hinduism. 15 16 The essence, need and value of virtue is explained in Hindu philosophy as something that cannot be imposed, but something that is realized and voluntarily lived up to by each individual. For example, apastamba explained it thus: "virtue and vice do not go about saying - here we are!; neither the gods, gandharvas, nor ancestors can convince us - this is right, this is wrong; virtue is an elusive concept, it demands careful and sustained reflection. 17 Virtues lead to punya ( Sanskrit :, 18 holy living) in Hindu literature; while vices lead to pap (Sanskrit:, 19 sin ). Sometimes, the word punya is used interchangeably with virtue. 20 The virtues that constitute a dharmic life - that is a moral, ethical, virtuous life - evolve in vedas and upanishads.

four essays on philosophy

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The same chapter describes love story as the greatest of the three, and further defines love as "patient, kind, not envious, boastful, arrogant, or rude." (The Christian virtue of love is sometimes called charity and at other times a greek word agape is used to contrast. The bible mentions additional virtues, such as in the " Fruit of the holy Spirit found in Galatians 5:22-23: "By contrast, the fruit of the Spirit it is benevolent -love: joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, benevolence, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is absolutely no law against such a thing." 13 The medieval and renaissance periods saw a number of models of sin listing the seven deadly sins and the virtues opposed to each. Islam edit main article: Islamic views on virtue in Islam, the qur'an is believed to be the literal word of God, and the definitive description of virtue. Muhammad is considered an ideal example of virtue in human form. The hadiths, his reported sayings, are central to the Islamic understanding of virtue. Virtue is defined in hadith. It is reported by An-Nawwas bin Sam'an: "The Prophet Muhammad said, "Piety/virtue is good manner, and sin is that which creates doubt and you do not like people to know." — sahih Muslim, 32:6195, sahih Muslim, 32:6196 Wabisah bin Mabad reported: I went. I replied in the affirmative.

Wisdom is personified in the first eight chapters of the book of Proverbs and is not only the source of virtue but is depicted as the first and best creation of God (Proverbs 8:12-31). Wisdom is also celebrated in the book of Wisdom. 11 A classic articulation of the golden Rule came from the first century rabbi hillel the Elder. Renowned in the jewish tradition as a sage and a scholar, he is associated with the development of the mishnah and the talmud and, as such, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. Asked for a summary of the jewish religion in the most concise terms, hillel replied (reputedly while standing on one leg "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole torah. The rest is commentary; go and learn." 12 Christianity edit virtues fighting vices, stained glass window (14th century) in the niederhaslach Church main article: Christian ethics see also: seven virtues and evangelical counsels In Christianity, the three theological virtues are faith, hope and love,.

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four essays on philosophy

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Iustitia "justice" sense of moral worth to an summary action; personified by the goddess Iustitia, the roman counterpart to the Greek themis. Pietas "dutifulness" more than religious piety; a respect for the natural order: socially, politically, and religiously. Includes ideas of patriotism, fulfillment of pious obligation to the gods, and honoring other human beings, especially in terms of the patron and client relationship, considered essential to an orderly society. Prudentia "prudence" foresight, wisdom, and personal discretion. Salubritas "wholesomeness" general health and cleanliness, personified in the deity salus. Severitas "sternness" self-control, considered to be tied directly to the virtue of gravitas.

Veritas "truthfulness" honesty in dealing with others, personified by the goddess Veritas. Veritas, being the mother of Virtus, was considered the root of all virtue; a person living an honest life was bound to be virtuous. Virtus "manliness" valor, excellence, courage, character, and worth. 'vir' is Latin for "man". Religious traditions edit judaism edit main summary article: Jewish ethics loving God and obeying his laws, in particular the ten Commandments, are central to jewish conceptions of virtue.

This was considered to be essential for a magistrate's ability to enforce law and order. Comitas "humour" ease of manner, courtesy, openness, and friendliness. Constantia "perseverance" military stamina, as well as general mental and physical endurance in the face of hardship. Clementia "mercy" mildness and gentleness, and the ability to set aside previous transgressions. Dignitas "dignity" a sense of self-worth, personal self-respect and self-esteem.


Disciplina "discipline" considered essential to military excellence; also connotes adherence to the legal system, and upholding the duties of citizenship. Firmitas "tenacity" strength of mind, and the ability to stick to one's purpose at hand without wavering. Frugalitas "frugality" economy and simplicity in lifestyle, without being miserly. Gravitas "gravity" a sense of the importance of the matter at hand; responsibility, and being earnest. Honestas "respectability" the image that one presents as a respectable member of society. Humanitas "humanity" refinement, civilization, learning, and generally being cultured. Industria "industriousness" hard work.

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In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. Plato realized that because virtue was synonymous with wisdom it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted. He then added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is merely correct belief that has been thought through and "tethered". Roman virtues slip edit The term "virtue" itself is derived from the latin "virtus" (the personification of which was the deity virtus and had connotations of "manliness", "honour", worthiness of deferential respect, and civic duty as both citizen and soldier. This virtue was but one of many virtues which Romans of good character were expected to exemplify and pass on through the generations, as part of the mos maiorum ; ancestral traditions which defined "Roman-ness". Romans distinguished between the spheres of private and public life, and thus, virtues were also divided between those considered to be in the realm of private family life (as lived and taught by the paterfamilias and those expected of an upstanding Roman citizen. Most Roman concepts of virtue were also personified as a numinous deity. The primary roman virtues, both public and private, were: Auctoritas "spiritual authority" the sense of one's social standing, built up through experience, pietas, and Industria.

four essays on philosophy

However, the virtuous action is not simply the "mean" (mathematically speaking) between two opposite extremes. As Aristotle says in the nicomachean Ethics: "at the right times, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, and in the right way, is the intermediate and best condition, and this is proper to virtue." 10 This is not simply. For example, generosity is a virtue between the two extremes of development miserliness and being profligate. Further examples include: courage between cowardice and foolhardiness, and confidence between self-deprecation and vanity. In Aristotle's sense, virtue is excellence at being human. Prudence and virtue edit seneca, the roman Stoic, said that perfect prudence is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person. Citation needed The same rationale was expressed by Plato in Meno, when he wrote that people only act in ways that they perceive will bring them maximum good. It is the lack of wisdom that results in the making of a bad choice instead of a prudent one.

who symbolized chaos, lies, and injustice. 3 4 Classical antiquity edit Platonic virtue edit The four classic cardinal virtues are: 5 This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed by Plato in addition to piety : σιότης (hosiotēs with the exception that wisdom replaced prudence as virtue. 6 Some scholars 7 consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal. It is unclear whether multiple virtues were of later construct, and whether Plato subscribed to a unified view of virtues. 8 In Protagoras and Meno, for example, he states that the separate virtues cannot exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom, yet in an unjust way; or acting with bravery (fortitude yet without wisdom. Aristotelian virtue edit In his work nicomachean Ethics, aristotle defined a virtue as a point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. 9 The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean sometimes closer to one extreme than the other.

Christianity derives the three theological virtues of faith, hope and love (charity) from 1 Corinthians. Together these make up the seven virtues. Buddhism's four brahmavihara divine States can be regarded as virtues in the european sense. Citation needed, the japanese bushidō code is characterized by up to ten virtues, citation needed including rectitude, courage, and benevolence. Contents, etymology edit, the ancient Romans used the latin word virtus (derived from vir, their word for man) to refer to all of the excellent qualities of men, including physical strength, valorous conduct, and moral rectitude. The French words vertu and virtu came from this Latin root. In the 13th century, the word virtue was borrowed into English. 1, ancient history edit, during Egyptian civilization, maat slip or ma'at (thought to have been pronounced *muʔ.ʕat also spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice.

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For the 2014 film, see. For other uses, see, virtue (disambiguation). Cardinal and Theological Virtues by, raphael, 1511, virtue (. Latin : virtus, ancient Greek : ρετή " arete is essays moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting collective and individual greatness. The opposite of virtue is vice. The four classic cardinal virtues are temperance, prudence, courage, and justice.


Four essays on philosophy
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Literary Theory literary theory is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. Appendix A: How to Write an Effective research.

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  7. Virtue (Latin: virtus, Ancient Greek: ρετή arete ) is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Literary Theory literary theory is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. Youve read one of your four complimentary articles for this month.

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